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That budgeting is one of those subjects that we would avoid instead, but in business, is an absolute necessity. A reasoned and thoughtful budget preparation, an accountant must begin with a critical analysis of the most recent actual performance and position of the company by managers who are responsible for the results. While managers to decide to specific and concrete objectives for the coming year. It requires a good dose of time management and energy. Budgets must be a value of time and effort. It is one of the most important parts of the job of a Manager.

For the construction of the States financial state, if a manager of good models of profits, cash flow and financial situation of your company. Models are blueprints, or diagrams of how things work. Business is a budget, at its core, a financial plan of the company. Budgeting is dependent on financial models that form the basis for the preparation of States financial budgeted. These statements include:

-Income budgeted statement (or profit report): this statement focuses on the essential information that managers needed for decision-making and monitoring. Much of the information in a report of internal profit is confidential and not outside of the company must be disclosed.

-Balance budgeted: connections and relationships between sales and costs and their active correspondents and liabilities are components of the basic model for the budgeted balance sheet.

-Statement of budgeted cash flow: changes in the assets and liabilities of their balances at year's end just projected balances closed at the end of the year next to determine the cash flow of the profit for the year ahead.

Budgeting requires the operation of the models of profit, financial position and profit cash flow performance. The construction of good budgets is a powerful incentive for companies to financial models that help in the budgetary process, but also help managers to take of strategic decisions.

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What are other ratios used in financial reporting

The dividend yield of relationship tells investors how much income they receive on their investments in shares in a company. It is calculated by dividing the annual cash dividend per share by the current price of the stock market. This can be compared with the rate of interest on debt instruments of high quality pay interest, such as Treasury bills and Treasury bills, which are the safest.

Book value per share is calculated by dividing the total of the shareholders divided by the total number of shares which are very constructive. While the most important value market of a stock, the book value per share EPS is the measure of the value recorded of the assets of the company less its liabilities, net assets of the backup copy of the action taken. It is possible that the market value of a stock is smaller than the book value per share.

Return on equity ratio (re) tells how a bus8iness compared to the carrying value of its equity profits. This ratio is useful for private companies, which have no way to determine the current value of the equity. ROE is also calculated for the companies, but it plays a secondary role other reports. ROE is calculated by dividing net income by equity.

The current ratio is a measure of a company in the short term solvency, in other words its ability to payment in the near future as a result obligations. This ratio is a crude indicator of whether if cash more money to collect accounts receivable and inventory to sell enough to repay the obligations listed in the following period will come due. It is calculated by dividing the assets by liabilities. Companies must comply with a current of minimum 2: 1 ratio, which means that the assets should be twice the current obligations.

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Types of expenses

Are fees that cann be attributed directly to a product or line of product or a source of income from the sale, or a unit or the operation of the company. An example of a direct cost would be the cost of tires on a new car.

Indirect costs are very different and cannot be linked to a specific product, the unit or activity. The cost of hand of work or benefits for a car manufacturer are definitely cost, but may not be connected, each with a vehicle. Each company has a method of allocation of indirect costs of different products, sources of income for sales, business units, etc. Most of the mapping methods are less efficient and generally eventually be random to one degree or another. Accounts and business managers should always keep an eye on the allocation methods used for indirect costs and cost figures produced by these methods with a grain of salt.

Fixed expenses are relatively cool even on the beach large volume of sales or production of output. They are like an albatross around the neck of the company and a company should sell his product at a high enough profit at least profitability.

Variable costs can increase and decrease in proportion to changes in the level of production or sales. Variable costs vary in proportion with changes in production.

Relevant costs are essentially future costs that can be created, according to which strategic direction a company. If a car manufacturer decides to increase production, but the cost of the tyres back, this cost must be taken into account.

Irrelevant costs which should be left aside when deciding on the future of the action. They charge that can cause a bad decision. While expenses are future costs, these costs are non-relevant costs that have been created in the past. The money is gone.

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Accounting principles

If all those involved in the process of accounting followed their own system, or no system at all, he did y nothing to really say whether a company is profitable or not. Most companies follow the so-called generally accepted accounting principles, or GAAP, and there are huge volumes in libraries and bookstores devoted to just this topic. Unless a company otherwise, no matter which can read a financial statement are the hypothesis that the GAAP company used.

If not the principles of GAAP used for the preparation of financial statements, and then a company needs to clarify what other form of accounting, they are used to and are bound to avoid using titles in its financial statements that the person who is likely to mislead the investigation.

GAAP are the gold standard for the preparation of financial statements. Not to disclose that it has used the principles of GAAP, make a corporation legally liable for any misleading or misunderstood information. These principles were refined for decades and effectively have mastered, accounting and financial reporting of companies systems methods. Different principles for different types of business entities, these for-profit and non-profit companies, Governments and other companies.

GAAP are not cut and dried, however. They are guidelines and are often subject to interpretation. Estimates should be the time and they faith efforts to require accuracy. You have certainly heard of the term "creative accounting", and it is when a company pushes the envelope a bit (or more) their business more profitable that it would be in reality. It is also known as the numbers of massage. This may not be under the control and transform quickly into accounting fraud, also known as the cooking books. The results of these practices can be devastating and hundreds and thousands of lives, as in the case of Enron, Rite Aid and ruining others.

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How accounting is applied in the business?

It may seem obvious, but in the management of a company, it is important to understand how the company makes a profit. A company has need of a good business model and a model of good profit. A company sells products or services and merit some margin on each unit sold. The number of units sold is the volume of sales during the period considered. The company is deducted from the amount of the fixed costs for the period, which made them operating income before interest and income taxes.

It is important not to confuse the profits with cash flow. Profit equals revenue less cost. A business leader should not assume that income from the sale is equal to flows of cash and that cost equal cash outflows. In the recognition of revenue from the sale, in cash or other assets increased. The debtors assets is income increased for sale on the credit file. Many expenses are recorded by lowering an asset of the money. For example, cost of goods sold is supplied with a decrease in the inventory of assets and depreciation expenses are recorded with a decrease in book value of capital assets. In addition, certain expenses are included with an increase in accounts payable liability or an increase in the liability to pay accrued expenses.

Don't forget that some budgeting better than nothing. Budgeting offers significant benefits, such as understanding the dynamics of the profit and the financial structure of the company. It also helps for the planning of changes in the next reporting period. Budgeting applies a business leader to focus on the factors that must be improved to increase profits. A well designed profit and loss report account provides the essential framework of budgeting profit. It is always a good idea to look forward to the coming year. If nothing else, at least plug the numbers into your profits to report for the volume of sales, the price of sale, costs and other expenses and see how your earnings expected for the coming year.

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What is financial makeup?

Financial managers can do certain things to increase or decrease of net income that is saved in the year. This is called profit smoothing, smoothing of income or just plain old makeup. This is not the same as fraud or cookbooks.

The more profit smoothing includes push some amount of income and at the expense of other years they would have normally captured. A technique for smoothing of the gain is to process repairs and routine maintenance. This is called deferred maintenance. Many routine and recurring costs for maintenance required for automobiles, trucks, machines, equipment and buildings can be delayed or deferred to later.

A company that has a considerable amount of money for the training of employees and development going on these programs could be delayed until the next year, so the cost of the current year is lower.

A company can cut on the expenditure of the current year on market research and product development.

A company can alleviate the rules concerning when slow paying customers have been written offshore and charges of bad debt or bad debts. The company can pick up some of its costs of bad debts next year deferred reporting.

An asset that is not actively used may be very little current or future business value. Instead of writing costs a depreciated of active reduction as a loss in the current year, the company could slow the depreciation until the next year.

You can see how to manipulate the timing of certain expenses of an effect on net income. This is not illegal, although companies can go too far in massage numbers so that its misleading financial statements. For most but profit smoothing is not much more that robbing Peter to pay Paul. Accountants to designate these compensatory effects. The titles of the next year offset and reverse the effects of the current year. Less expensive, this year is compensated by costs more the following year.

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So, what is happening on the accounting departments and accounting? What these people on a daily basis?

In addition, one thing they do is terribly important for all those who work there on the payroll. All wages and taxes earned and paid by each employee each pay period must be registered. The Payroll Department must ensure that the appropriate federal, State and local taxes are deducted. The pay stub added to your wage records these taxes. They usually include security of income tax, social tax pous employment must be paid to the Federal Government and the State. Other deductions include those personal, such as that for the retirement, vacation, leave, illness or medical benefits. It is a critical function. Some companies have their own payroll services; other Contracting specialists.

The Ministry of Finance receives and records all cash payments or receipts of customers or clients of the company or service. The Ministry of finance to ensure that money is specific and deposited in the appropriate accounts. They also manage where will the money; How it is kept part to areas such as payroll, or how it comes out to pay what the company needs its banks, suppliers and other obligations. Some must also be invested.

The other side of the claim of the company is debt, or cash payments. A company has written a lot of controls in the course of the year to pay for purchases, supplies, wages, taxes, loans and services. Accounting Department prepares all these audits and records to which they have been paid, how much and for what. Accounting services also good track of order placed for the inventory, such as products that will be sold to clients or customers. They also follow assets such as property and equipment company. This could include the Office building, furniture, computers, even the smaller items such as pencils and pens.

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What is accounting?

Who works in an Office at one time or another has had to go to accounting. They are the people who pay and send the invoices that keep the business running. They do much more than that, though. Sometimes referred to as "bean counters" they also monitor their profits, costs and losses. Unless you run your own business and acts as your own accountant, you have no way of knowing how profitable - or not - is your company without any form of accounting.

Any company you are, even if all what you do is balance a checkbook, which is still accounting. It is part of life even a child. Recording of financial compensation, she at this once-expenditure accounting principles.

What are some other companies that accounting is crucial? Well, farmers need careful to follow accounting procedures. Many of them run their farms from one year to the other through loans for crops. If this is a good, profitable year, they can pay their loans. If step, they might have for the loan and the interest expense increase.

Each company and each individual needs to have a sort of accounting system in their lives. In addition, the finance get away from them, they know what they have issued, or if they can expect a profit or a loss of their business. Stay aware of accountants, if for a multi-billion dollar company, or a staff chequing account is a necessary activity on a daily basis, if you are smart. Do not do so can mean anything a rebound control or posting a loss on the shareholders of a corporation. The two scenarios can be just as devastating.

Accounting is really the information, and this information is regularly published in the business as a profit and loss account or an account of profits and losses.

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Measuring costs

Measure profits or net income, it is that it is the main thing accountants. The second most important task is the measure of costs. Expenses are extremely important for business management and their effective management can be a considerable difference in the bottom of a business line.

Any company that sells products expected costs of product and that which is manufactured or sold, it can get complicated. Each step of the production process must be carefully followed from beginning to end. Many costs of production is not directly corresponding to particular products; It is overhead. To calculate the full cost of each product is manufactured, develop methods of verification for the allocation of indirect costs of production for specific products. Offer of generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP) of the guidelines for the measurement of fresh products.

Accountants must determine several other charges, in addition to fresh products, such as the cost of government departments and other organizational units of the company; the cost of the employees of the company pension plan; marketing and advertising costs. the cost of the restructuring of the company or the cost of a large recall of the products sold by the company, that ever be necessary.

Analytical Accounting has two general objectives: measuring gains and the implementation of relevant information for managers. What makes the confused, it is that there is no set measurement and statement of fees method, although the accuracy is paramount. Analytical accounting can be anywhere on a continuum between conservatives or broad. The real cost of the sentence is entirely dependent on the specific methods used to measure the cost. Often, this can be also subjective and vague as some systems for the evaluation of the sport. Once again an accuracy is very important. Usually the total cost of the goods or products sold is the cost of first and the largest deducted from revenues from the sale of profit to measure.

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What is the net profit per share

Public companies have to earnings per share (EPS) under the net income of line in their report of accounts of profits and losses. This is mandated by the generally accepted accounting practices (GAAP). EPC gives investors a means to determine the amount of the company earned on his investment on the part of the stock. In other words, it tells investors how much net income EPS the shares of the company for each share they own. It is calculated by dividing net income divided by the total number of share capital. It is important to shareholders that the net income of the company must be communicated to them on a per share basis so that they want with the price of the stock market can compare.

Private businesses to the shareholders of EPS report to focus more on total net income of the company.

Publicly held companies are in fact of two figures EPS, unless you have what is called a simple structure of capital. However, most publicly held companies have complex capital structures and have two figures of the EPS. Is called the base EPS; the other is called the diluted EPS. Basic EPS is based on the number of shares which are very constructive. Diluted are based on the outstanding shares and shares can be issued in the future in the form of stock options.

It is obviously a complex process. Accountant must adapt the EPS formula for an arbitrary number of cases or changes in the business. A company can issue additional shares in the year and buy back some of its own shares. Or it could take to the different classes of shares, net revenues be divided into two or more pools-one for each class of stock will cause. A merger, acquisition or divestiture will also affect the formula of the EPS.

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What has happened to Enron?

Everyone knows at least a bit of things on the history of Enron and the devastation it created in the lives of workers. It is a story that, in any discussion of ethics and accounting process that happens when accounting standards and ethics be deleted for personal greed.

Enron started in 1985 Sales manager natural gas companies and activities. In 1996, energy markets have been modified so that the price of energy now can be decided by competition between energy companies instead of being fixed by government regulation. With this change, Enron has begun to function more as an intermediary as a traditional supplier of energy, trade contracts for energy instead of the purchase and sale of natural gas. Rapid growth Enron created excitement among investors and led the stock market values. As Enron grew, it expanded to other sectors such as internet services and its financial contracts was complicated.

To continue this growth rate, Enron began to borrow money to invest in new projects. However, because the debt their earnings look less impressive would, Enron has begun partnerships that allow to keep the debt from its books. A partnership created by Enron kept Chewco investments (named after the character in Star Wars Chewbacca) allowed Enron the 600 million dollars in debt off the coast of his books have shown to the Government and those who possess shares of Enron. When the debt was step reports show up Enron came, Enron-style seems to have much more success that it was created in fact. In December 2000 Enron has claimed to have its profits tripled in two years.

In August 2001, Enron Vice President Sherron Watkins, a letter anonymous for the CEO of Enron, Kenneth Lay, with a description of the accounting methods that they felt Enron to "implode in a wave of accounting scandals." driving in August also sent emails to CEO Kenneth Lay employees say that he expects the shares of Enron to go up. During this time, he sold his own Enron stock.

On 22 October, the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) has announced that it was Enron. November 8, said Enron that it overstated profits for four years by 586 million dollars and that it is more than $ 6 billion of debt due by next year.

With these announcements the Enron stock prices took a dive. This reduction enabled certain agreements with investors that are necessary for Enron to refund their money immediately. When Enron with the money to repay its creditors could come, declared Chapter 11 bankruptcy.

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Some parts of a profit and loss account, part 2

Of course, profit and the cost of COGS are the two most critical components of a profit and loss account, or at least they what people initially look like. But a profit and loss account is really the sum of its parts, and they must all be carefully, consistently and accurately.

Depreciation reports additional costs, a company can have a method of loading and the use of short-lived most of the costs in the first years, or longer life method and the cost evenly throughout the year. Depreciation is a heavy burden for some companies, and the method of reporting is particularly essential for them.

One of the more complex elements of a profit and loss account is the reports of the pensions of employees and pension rights. The subject line GAAP, these costs is complex and several significant estimates should be taken by the company, such as the rate of return on the portfolio of the funds reserved for these future expected commitments. This and other estimates affect the amount of the costs.

Many products are sold with guarantees and guarantee express or implied. The company must estimate the costs of these future commitments and include this amount as an expense in the same period that the goods are sold with the cost of goods. Really cannot wait until clients return truly products for repair or replacement, prognosis as a percentage of all of the products sold.

Other operating expenses that are reported in a profit and loss account could also be timing or estimation of considerations. Some costs are also nature, which means that the amount is spent the year depends on the judgment of discretionary management.

Earnings before interest and taxes (EBIT) measure the sales revenue, less any costs above this line. This depends on decisions for the inclusion of revenue from sales, costs, and how the accounting methods are executed.

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Software quasar

Accounting is more complex since companies using accounting functions. Fortunately, there are several excellent software packages that can help you manage this important function. Quasar is one such package.

All of Quasar versions offer full inventory controls. In its most basic use can inventory a contractor for track of the locations and quantities of all items in stock. In addition, more inventory opportunities beyond simple monitoring. Manufacturers and wholesalers can build kits pieces; When a kit is mounted, the inventory that represent the component elements have been adapted accordingly. The elements can be classified into different categories and groups can be nested many levels of depth. Vendor purchase orders can be generated for items whose quantities below a predefined threshold. Cost for items selling prices can be set up and equipped in a large number of different ways. Finally, these elements can be reported on to show, as profit margins and sales section.

Sale and purchase of another strong point of Quasar. Client citations can easily be converted into bills to pay. Promotions and discounts can be given based on the date, client, or the location of the store. Margins can be reported on properties such as individual items, individual customer or individual seller. Also, a purchase order created and converted to an invoice of the supplier, which may be paid in a number of different ways, including an audit of printing. Quasar can keep track of various expenses such as container depots, freight charges, franchise fees.

The intelligent design of Quasar user interface allows quick and easy data entry. Some programs that you may experience are not optimized for the use of the keyboard. These programmes should place your hand on the mouse to select the options often need to move. While some of the inaccessible Quasar menu options mouse only, is the large part of the user interface is designed so that you can get your hands on the keyboard using special hotkeys of Quasar. This allows data entry more rapid, which can save time (and money) in the long term.

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What is a business?

Most of the companies initially, a small business, once belonging to a person or a partnership. The most common type of business when there are multiple owners is a corporation. The law considers a society as a real, live person. In adulthood, a corporation is treated as a separate and independent, person who has the rights and responsibilities. A company "birth certificate" is the legal form that is filed with the Secretary of the State in which the company is created or saved. It must be a legal name, as a person.

A society is distinct from the owners. He is responsible for its own debts. The Bank cannot come after the shareholders if a company goes bankrupt.

A company owned by share of subsidies to people who invest money in the business. This property actions are documented by the certificates of shares, that is the name of the owner and the number of sharing its property. the company keep a register or list of how much everyone shares. Business owners are called shareholders because they are issued by the own company shares. A share of stock is a unit of belonging. How an action is dependent on the total number of shares which publishes company. actions more from business, small percentage of the total of own funds by action represents.

Actions come in different classes of stock. Preference shareholders each year a quantity of cash dividends promised. Common shareholders are most exposed to this vulnerability. If a company is in financial difficulty ends, it must first of all to its obligation to pay off the coast. If there is no money left over, then this money goes firstly to the preferred shareholders. If something is left over after that, this money will be divided between the common shareholders.

3:28 PM | 0 comments

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